Date of Birth: 16.4.1963; Country of Birth: Germany; Date of Immigration to Israel: 1993



1980-2 International Baccalaureate, United World College of the Atlantic, Wales, UK (with a stipend from the Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes)

1982-3 Rothberg School, HUJI, One-Year-Program

1983-4 Zwischenprüfung, Freie Universität Berlin

1984-5 Dept. of Jewish Thought, HUJI

1985-7 M.A. University of Oxford,

1987-9 D. Phil. University of Oxford, Supervisor: Prof. Geza Vermes

1989-91 Post-Doc., Society of Fellows, Harvard University



1991-2003 External, Immigrant and Kamea Lecturer, Dept. of Jewish Thought.

2003-11 Senior Lecturer with tenure, Dept. of Jewish Thought

2011-14 Associate Professor, Dept. of Jewish Thought.

2014 Full Professor and Max Cooper Chair, Dept. of Jewish Thought



2018-20 Head of the Dept. of Jewish Thought

2017- Member of the Governing Body of the Buber Society of Fellows

2015- Member of the Senate, the Executive Committee, the Academic Committee of the Authority of Research Students, and the academic board of Kamea program

2014-7 Head of Amirim the Interdisciplinary Honors Program in the Humanities

2011-3 Head of the Excellence Program for Doctoral Students in the Humanities



2021 Beaufort Visiting Scholar at Cambridge University (St. John’s College and Classics Dept.)

2019-20 Martin Hengel Fellow, Tübingen University

2019-21 Head of an Exploration, Einstein Center Chronoi, Berlin

2019-23 Affiliation with the DFG Research Group “Threatened Orders” at Tübingen University (sub-project headed by Volker Drecoll and Irmgard Männlein Robert)

2017-8 Co-head of a Research Group at the Israel Institute for Advanced Study

Member of Doctoral Juries at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes and the Sorbonne, Paris



The Israel Science Foundation, 5 research grants:

1999-2001 “Philo on Jewish Identity and Culture”

2003-7 “The Book of Genesis as Interpreted by Philo and the Rabbis”

2008-11 “Homeric Scholarship and Bible Exegesis”

2011-14 “Philo. An Intellectual Biography”

2017-20 “Genesis Rabbah in Greco-Roman and Christian Context”

The Israel Science Foundation, 2 grants in support of conferences:

2010 “Homer and the Bible in the Eyes of Ancient Interpreters”

2015 “Journeys in the Roman East – Imagined and Real”

Israel Institute for Advanced Studies, Research Group on “The Self in Antiquity”,

2017-18 Co-head of the group, main organizer of the international conference concluding the year and of a series of lectures in memory of Yohanan Levy

Polonsky Prize for Creativity and Originality in the Humanistic Disciplines 2011

1st prize for my book “Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria” (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Polonsky Prize for Creativity and Originality in the Humanistic Disciplines 2019

1st prize for my book “Philo of Alexandria. An Intellectual Biography” (Yale University Press, 2018)

Finalist of the Jordan Schnitzer Prize of the Association for Jewish Studies 2019 for my book

“Philo of Alexandria. An Intellectual Biography” (Yale University Press, 2018).

Chronoi, Einstein Center Berliner Antike Kolleg, 1/2019-12/2020,

Head of an Exploration, with 2 post-docs, 1 doctoral and 1 MA student in Jerusalem

Niedersachsen-Israeli Research Cooperation, 2014-18, “Journeys in the Roman East”,

with Reinhard Feldmeier (Göttingen)

Fritz Thyssen Stiftung, research grant, 2014-17, “Genesis Rabbah in view of Patristic Exegesis”

Miphal Ha-Pais (2013), grant in support of the sixth volume of Philo’s works in Hebrew translation.

List of Outstanding Scientists, Ministry of Immigration, 2010

German Israeli Foundation (2003-5), Research Grant for Junior Scholars

Humboldt Stiftung (2001-2), Research Grant



2020- Member of the Editorial Board of Novum Testamentum

2020- Editor of Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Thought [in Hebrew]

2018- Member of the International Board of Scripta Classica Israelica

2017-27 Co-editor of the Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum

2016- Founding Editor of a new series of monographs “Culture, Politics and Religion in the Greco-Roman World” (CPRGRW, Mohr Siebeck/Tübingen)

2016- Co-editor of a monograph series in Jewish studies (TSAJ, Mohr Siebeck/Tübingen)

2015- Member of the Advisory Board of the monograph series Ancient Philosophy and Religion (Brill/Leiden)

2014- Member of the Advisory Board of the journal Religion in the Roman Empire (Mohr Siebeck/Tübingen)

2006- Member of the Advisory Board of the Studia Philonica Annual



“Homer in the Eyes of Ancient Interpreters”, Jerusalem (June 2010), publ. # 9,

funded by the Israel Science Foundation, the Center for Literary Studies, and the Research Authority of the Hebrew University

“Journeys in the Roman East: Imagined and Real”, Jerusalem (June 2015), publ. # 6,

funded by the Niedersachsen Ministry of Culture and Science, the Israel Science Foundation, and the Centre for the Study of Christianity, HUJI

“Philo’s Migratio Abrahami,”, Göttingen University (February 2016), publ. # 7,

funded by the Academy of Sciences in Niedersachsen

“Constructions of the Self in Ancient Mediterranean Cultures”, Israel Institute for Advanced Studies (May 2018), publ. # 5

Yohanan Levy Memorial Lectures in Late Antiquity, Israel Institute for Advanced Studies (spring 2018), publ. # 5

“Philo and other Greek-speaking Intellectuals in the Roman Empire”, Tübingen University (July 2021)


LIST OF PUBLICATIONS (updated August 2020)


1. Philo of Alexandria. An Intellectual Biography, 2018.

New Haven: Yale University Press. 

Polonsky Prize 2019, Jordan Schnitzer Prize Finalist 2019. 

German translation Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019.

Hebrew translation forthcoming at Jerusalem: Magness Press, 2021.

French translation forthcoming at Turnout: Brepols.

Italian translation forthcoming. 

2. Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, 2011. 

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, paperback edition 2014. 

Polonsky Prize 2011.

3. Philo on Jewish Identity and Culture, 2001. 

Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

4. The Figure of Joseph in Post-Biblical Jewish Literature, 1992. 

Leiden: Brill.



5. Self, Self-Fashioning, and Individuality in Late Antiquity, 2019. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck; with Joshua Levinson.

6. Journeys in the Roman East: Imagined and Real, 2017. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. 

7. Abrahams Aufbruch. Philon von Alexandria, De Migratione Abrahami, 2017. SAPERE 30; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck; with Reinhard Feldmeier.

8. Philo of Alexandria. Writings [in Hebrew], vol. 4.2, 2015. Jerusalem: The Israeli Academy of Sciences and Humanities/The Bialik Institute.

9. Homer and the Bible in the Eyes of Ancient Interpreters, 2012. Leiden: Brill.

10. Philo of Alexandria. Writings [in Hebrew], vol. 5, 2012. Jerusalem: Israeli Academy of Sciences and Humanities/The Bialik Institute; with Yehoshua Amir.

11. “And this is For Yehuda”. Studies presented to our friend, Professor Yehuda Liebes, on the Occasion of his sixty-fifth Birthday [in Hebrew], 2012. Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute/The Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; with Ronit Meroz and Jonathan Garb. 



12. “‘And Abraham trusted God and it was counted to him as Righteousness’ (Gen. 15.6). Abraham’s Faith in Paul’s and Philo’s Exegesis”, Studia Philonica Annual 32 (2020, forthcoming, 54 pages). 

13. “Paul and Philo on the Psalms. Towards a Spiritual Notion of Scripture”, Novum Testamentum 63 (2020, forthcoming).

14. “Biblical Women in Origen’s Newly discovered Homilies on Psalms: Gendered Markers of Christian Identity in Late Antique Caesarea”, Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses (2020, forthcoming).

15. “From the ‘Theater of the World’ to the ‘Mask of Christ’ – and Back Again. Insights from Origen’s Newly Discovered Homilies on Psalms”, Scripta Classica Israelica 39 (2020) 117-36.

16. “A Jew for Roman Tastes. The Parting of the Ways in Justin’s Dialogue with Trypho from a Post-Colonial Perspective”, Journal of Early Christian Studies 27 (2019), 549-78.

17. “Philon d’Alexandrie à Rome : les conséquences intellectuelles d’un voyage”, Semitica et Classica 10 (2017), 81-93.

18. “Justin Martyr’s Timaeus in light of Philo’s”, Studia Philonica Annual 28 (2016), 375-92.

19. “Eusebius as a Reader of Philo”, Adamantius 21 (2015), 185-94.

20. “A Jewish Critique of Christianity from second century Alexandria. Revisiting Celsus’ Jew”, Journal of Early Christian Studies 21 (2013), 151-75. 

21. “Philo and Plutarch as Biographers: Parallel Reactions to Roman Stoicism”, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 52 (2012), 361-92. 

22. “Commentary Culture in the Land of Israel from an Alexandrian Perspective”, Dead Sea Discoveries 19 (2012), 442-63.

23. “Philo’s Exposition in A Roman Context”, Studia Philonica Annual 23 (2011), 1-21. 

24. “The Symposium of Philo's Therapeutae: Displaying Jewish Identity in an increasingly Roman World”, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 50 (2010), 95-117.

25. “The Joseph Story in Philo's Writings: from Text to Character” [in Hebrew], Beit Mikra 55 (2010), 107-22.

26. “Philo’s Role as a Platonist in Alexandria”, Études Platoniciennes 7 (2010), 35-62.

27. “Questions and Answers in Philo and Genesis Rabbah”, Journal for the Study of Judaism 39 (2008), 337-66.

28. “Homeric Scholarship and Bible Exegesis in Alexandria. Evidence from Philo's 'Quarrelsome' Colleagues’”, Classical Quarterly 57 (2007), 166-82.

29. “Did the Timaeus create a Textual Community?”, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 47 (2007), 161-91.

30. “Creatio ex Nihilo Theology in Genesis Rabbah in light of Christian Exegesis”, Harvard Theological Review 99 (2006), 37-64. 

31. “Mother and Maiden, Sister and Spouse: Sarah in Philonic Midrash”, Harvard Theological Review 97 (2004), 413-44.

32. “Circumcision as a Marker of Identity: Philo, Origen and the Rabbis on Gen. 17:1-14”, Jewish Studies Quarterly 10 (2003), 89-123.

33. “Jewish Identity and Jewish Mothers: Who was a Jew according to Philo?”, Studia Philonica Annual 11 (1999), 31-54. 

34. “Jellinek's Concept of Aggadah” [in Hebrew], Jewish Studies 38 (1998), 119-27. 

35. “Two Examples of Josephus' Narrative Technique in his ‘Rewritten Bible’”, Journal for the Study of Judaism 27 (1996), 31-45.

36. “Jacob Weil's Contribution to a Modern Concept of Aggadah”, Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 41 (1996), 21-49. 

37. “The Phoenix in Rabbinic Literature”, Harvard Theological Review 89 (1996), 245-65. 

38. “What is in a Name? Philo's Mystical Philosophy of Language”, Jewish Studies Quarterly 2 (1995), pp. 220-52. 

39. “Zunz' Concept of Aggadah as an Expression of Jewish Spirituality” [in Hebrew], Tarbiz 65 (1995), 423-59. 

English translation: “Zunz' Concept of Aggadah as an Expression of Jewish Spirituality”, Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 43 (1998), 3-24.

40. “The Return of Myth in Genesis Rabbah on the Akeda”, Journal of Jewish Studies 46 (1995), 69-87. 

41. “The Characterisation of Ruth in the Midrash [in Hebrew], Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Thought 11 (1993), 49-78. 

42. “The Buber-Rosenzweig Translation within the Jewish-German Tradition”, Journal of Jewish Studies 44 (1993), 258-79.

43. “Associative Thinking in Rabbinic Midrash: The Example of Abraham's and Sarah's Journey to Egypt” [in Hebrew], Tarbiz 62 (1993), 339-61. 

44. “A Dream which is not interpreted is like a Letter which is not read”, Journal of Jewish Studies 43 (1992), 58-84.

45. “Do Biblical Characters speak to themselves? Modes of Representing Inner Speech in Early Biblical Narrative”, Journal of Biblical Literature 111 (1992), 577-95.

46. “The Figure of Joseph in the Targums”, Journal of Jewish Studies 39 (1988), 234-50.



47. “Celsus’ Jew in Third Century Caesarea. Tracing Hellenistic Judaism in Origen’s Contra Celsum”, in J. Ben Dov and M. Bar Asher-Siegal (eds.), Social History of the Jews in Antiquity: Studies in Dialogue with Albert Baumgarten's Work (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, forthcoming).

48. “Athletic Competitions as Markers of Religious Identity in Caesarea. Insights from Origen’s Newly Discovered Homilies, the Second Sophistic and Rabbinic Literature”, in D. Mizzi et al. (eds.), Festschrift in Honor of Jodi Magness (London: Routledge, forthcoming).

49. “Homer between Celsus, Origen and the Jews of Late Antique Palaestina”, in R. Abramovitz-Zelnik and J. Price (eds.), Text and Intertext in Greek Epic and Drama: Essays in Honor of Margalit Finkelberg (London: Routledge, 2020), 185-209. 

50. “Philo and Josephus fashion themselves as religious Authors in Rome”, in E.-M. Becker and J. Rüpke (eds.), Stimmen des Autors (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019), 83-103. 

51. “A Hybrid Self: Rabbi Abbahu in Legal Debates in Caesarea”, in M. R. Niehoff, and J. Levinson (eds.), Self, Self-Fashioning, and Individuality in Late Antiquity (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019), 291-329. 

52. “Philo’s Rationalization of Judaism”, in Y. Friedman and Chr. Markschies (eds.), Rationalization of Religion, (Berlin: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities and the Berlin Brandenburger Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2019), 21-44. 

53. “Colonizing and Decolonizing the Creation of the World. A Dispute between Origen and Rabbi Hoshaya”, in M. Blidstein, S. Ruger and D. Stökl Ben Ezra (eds.), Scriptures, Sacred Traditions, and Strategies of Religious Subversion: Studies in Discourse with the work of Guy G. Stroumsa (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2018), 113-29. 

54. “Parodies of Educational Journeys in Josephus, Justin Martyr and Lucian”, in M. R. Niehoff (ed.), Journeys in the Roman East: Imagined and Real (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2017), 203-24.

55. “Between Social Context and Personal Ideology: Philo’s Changing Views of Women”, in E. Schuller and M.-Th. Wacker (eds.), Early Jewish Writings, The Bible and Women 3.1 (Atlanta: SBL Press, 2017), 187-203.

German translation: “Zwischen gesellschaftlichem Kontext und individueller Ideologie. Die Entwicklung des Frauenbildes bei Philo von Alexandria”, in E. Schuller and M.-Th. Wacker (eds.), Frühjüdische Schriften. Die Bibel und die Frauen 3.1 (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2017), 174-90. 

Spanish translation: “Entre el context social y la ideologia individual: Filon transforma su conception de la mujer”, in E. Schuller and M.-Th. Wacker (eds), Primeros escritos judios (Estella: Verbo Divino, 2019), 205-22. 

56. “‘The Power of Ares’ in Philo's Legatio”, in F. Calabi, O. Munnich, G. Reydams-Schils, and E. Vimercati (eds.), Pouvoir et puissances chez Philon d'Alexandrie (Turnhout: Brepols, 2016), 129-39.

57. “‘Not Study is the Main Objective, but Action’ (Pirqe Avot 1:17). A Rabbinic Maxim in Greco-Roman Context”, in M. Bar Asher-Siegal, Chr. Hayes and T. Novick (eds.), From Text to Context in Ancient Judaism: Studies in Honor of Steven Fraade (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2016), 455-72.

58. “Origen’s Commentary on Genesis as a Key to Genesis Rabbah”, in S. Kattan Gribetz, D. Grossberg, M. Himmelfarb and P. Schäfer (eds.), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016), 129-53.

59. “Desires Crossing Boundaries: Romance and History in Josephus’ Antiquities”, in J. Baden, H. Najman and E. Tigchelaar (eds.), Sibyls, Scriptures, and Scrolls: John Collins at Seventy (Leiden: Brill, 2016), 973-91.

60. “Die Sapientia Salomis and Philon – Vertreter derselben alexandrinisch-jüdischen Religionspartei?”, in K.-W. Niebuhr (ed.), Sapientia Salomonis (SAPERE 29; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016), 257-71. 

61. “Accommodating the Political: Philo’s King Metaphor”, in M. Witte and S. Behnke (eds.), The Metaphorical Use of Language in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015), 331-44.

62. “Wie wird man ein mediterraner Denker? Der Fall Philon von Alexandria”, in M. Dabag, D. Haller, N. Jaspert and A. Lichtenberger (eds.), Ein Pluriverses Universum. Zivilisationen und Religionen im antiken Mittelmeerraum (München: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2015), 355-68.

63. «Les juifs d’Alexandrie à l’école de la critique textuelle des païens», in C. Méla and F. Möri (eds.), Alexandrie la divine (Geneva: Éditions de la Baconnière, 2014), 733-40.

64. “Jüdische Bibelinterpretation zwischen Homerforschung und Christentum”, in R. Feldmeier and T. Georges (eds.), Alexandria. Stadt der Bildung und Religion (COMES 1; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013), 341-60. 

65. “Halacha, Nomos oder Tugend im hellenistischen Judentum?”, in F. Horn, U. Volp and R. Zimmermann (eds.), Ethische Normen des frühen Christentums. Gut – Leben – Leib – Tugend (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013), 193-206. 

66. “Biographical Sketches in Genesis Rabbah”, in: R. Boustan et al. (eds.), Envisioning Judaism. Studies in Honor of Peter Schäfer on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013), 1:265-86.

67. “The Emergence of Monotheistic Creation Theology in Hellenistic Judaism”, in L. Jenott and S. Kattan Gribetz (eds.), In the Beginning: Jewish and Christian Cosmogony in Late Antiquity (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013), 85-106. 

68. “The Implied Audience of the Letter of James”, in G. Anderson, R. Clements and D. Satran (eds.), Bible Exegesis among Jews and Christians. New Approaches (Leiden: Brill, 2013), 57-77.

69. “Homer visits Philo” [in Hebrew], in M. R. Niehoff, R. Meroz and J. Garb (eds.), AND THIS IS FOR YEHUDA. Studies presented to our friend, Professor Yehuda Liebes, on the Occasion of his sixty-fifth Birthday (Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute/The Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies, the Hebrew University, 2012), 39-52. 

70. “Philo and Plutarch on Homer”, in M. R. Niehoff (ed.), Homer and the Bible in the Eyes of Ancient Interpreters (Leiden: Brill, 2012), 127-54.

71. “Is Hellenistic Judaism vital for the Israeli Academy?” [in Hebrew], in B. Isaac and J. Price (eds.), Z’manim 117 (special issue, proceedings of a workshop at the Israeli Academy of Sciences), (2012), 52-7. 

72. “Philons Beitrag zur Kanonisierung der griechischen Bibel”, in E.-M. Becker und S. Scholz (eds.), Kanon in Konstruktion und Dekonstruktion (Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 2012), 329-44.

73. «Recherche homérique et exégèse biblique à Alexandrie: un fragment sur la Tour de Babel préservé par Philon», in S. Inowlocki-Meister et B. Decharneux (eds.), Philon d'Alexandrie : un penseur à l'intersection des cultures gréco-romaine, orientale, juive, et chrétienne, Actes du colloque de Bruxelles, 26-28 juin 2007 (Brepols: Turnhout, 2011), 83-103. 

74. “Jüdische Bibelexegese im Spiegel alexandrinischer Homerforschung”, in R. Feldmeier, F. Albrecht and T. Georges (eds.), Biblische Notizen 148, special issue on Alexandria – Stadt der Bildung und Religion (Freiburg: Herder, 2011), 19-34.

75. “Philo's Scholarly Inquiries into the Story of Paradise”, in M. Bockmuehl and G. G. Stroumsa (eds.), Paradise among Jews and Christians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) 28-42. 

76. “Philo's Contribution to Contemporary Alexandrian Metaphysics”, in A. Jacobsen, J. Ullrich and D. Brakke (eds.), Beyond "Reception": Judaism, Christianity and Antiquity (Bern: Peter Lang, 2007), 35-55.

77. “New Garments for Biblical Joseph”, in Chr. Helmer (ed.), Biblical Interpretation. History, Context and Reality (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005), 33-56.

78. “Alexandrian Judaism in 19th Century Wissenschaft des Judentums: Between Modernity and Christianity”, in A. Oppenheimer (ed.), Jüdische Geschichte in hellenistisch-römischer Zeit. Wege der Forschung: vom alten zum neuen Schürer (München: R. Oldenburg Verlag, 1999), 9-28.

79. “Philo's Views on Paganism”, in G. Stanton and G. G. Stroumsa (eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 135-58.

80. “Moses Mendelssohn's Translation of Judah Halevi's Elegy on Zion” [in Hebrew], in A. Ravitzky (ed.), The Land of Israel in Modern Jewish Thought (Jerusalem: Isaac Ben Zvi Publications, 1998), 313-25.



81. “Jews and the Emergence of Christianity”, in C. Hezser (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Jews and Judaism in Late Antiquity (London: Routledge, forthcoming). 

82. “Origen’s Commentaries on the Old Testament”, in R. Heine (ed.), The Oxford Handbook to Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).

83. “Alexandrian Judaism”, in M. Henze and R. Werline (eds.), Ancient Judaism and its Modern Interpreters (Atlanta: Scholars Press, forthcoming).

84. “Philo of Alexandria”, in T. Whitmarsh (ed.), The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Revised Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).

85. “Josephus and Philo in Rome”, in H. Chapman and Z. Rodgers (eds.), A Companion to Josephus in his World (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2016), 135-46. 

86. “Philo, The Allegorical Commentary 1.31-62”; “Philo, The Life of Moses 1.1-44, 2.12-51” (Introduction and Commentary), in: L. Feldman, J. Kugel and L. Schiffman (eds.), Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish writings Related to Scripture (Nebraska, Nebraska University Press, 2013), 902-15, 959-88. 

87. “Philo of Alexandria. Annotated Bibliography”, in Oxford Bibliographies Online (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)

88. “Philo”, in M. Finkelberg (ed.), The Homer Encyclopedia (Oxford: 2011, Wiley Blackwell), 2:654-55.

89. “Alexandria”, in: D. Diner (ed.), Enzyklopädie jüdischer Kulturen (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 2011), 28-33.

90. “Philo: Allegorical Commentary", "Philo: Exposition of the Law", "Philo: Joseph”, in J. J. Collins and D. C. Harlow (eds.), The Dictionary of Early Judaism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010), 822-3, 1070-2, 1074-6.

91. “Philo Judaeus”, in F. Skolnik and M. Berenbaum (eds.), Encyclopaedia Judaica: Second Edition (Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007), 16:59-64

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